Impactos do etanol na redução das emissões de gases de efeito estufa


A utilização do etanol como substituto da gasolina tem como efeito uma redução de emissões líquidas de CO2. O valor dessa redução é ainda discutível. As incertezas estão principalmente relacionadas à quantidade de gasolina substituída pelo etanol, à produção de cana-de-açúcar e de etanol, aos insumos utilizados para sua produção e ao impacto do carbono sequestrado no solo quando a vegetação original (floresta, cerrado ou pastagem) é substituída pelo plantio de cana-de-açúcar. Considerando os dados de Macedo et al. (2004) para o ano de 2002, conforme ilustrado abaixo, e a produção total de etanol daquele ano (UNICA, 2007), para cada m de etanol hidratado e anidro consumido, reduz-se 1,7 e 2,6 tCO2eq., respectivamente.

Balanço das emissões de CO2 eq.(kg CO2eq./m3 de etanol)

Balanço das emissões de CO2 eq.(kg CO2eq./m3 de etanol) Fonte:elaboração própria a partir de Macedo et al. (2004)

Análise do Balanço de Carbono na cadeia de produção e uso

O que causa maior impacto na emissão de gases de efeito estufa é a quantidade de gasolina evitada por causa do uso de etanol. Em contrapartida, há que se levar em conta as emissões de gases de efeito estufa em toda a cadeia produtiva do etanol; essas emissões são decorrentes do uso de combustíveis fósseis e das emissões de metano e óxido nitroso devido à queima parcial da palha no campo, da decomposição de fertilizantes nitrogenados e de resíduos e, finalmente, pela mudança do estoque de carbono do solo e da parte aérea quando se trata de plantio em áreas onde houve mudança da cobertura vegetal.

Um estudo detalhado do ciclo de vida das emissões de gases de efeito estufa, abrangendo toda a cadeia produtiva do etanol e seu uso no Brasil, foi executado por Macedo et al. (2004), utilizando uma base de dados consistente e rastreável..

Balanço de CO2 na cadeia produtiva da cana-de-açúcar e bioetanol e uso do bioetanol (t de CO2 eq./m³ de etanol)

Duas situações foram consideradas nas avaliações de fluxos de energia: a Situação 1 foi baseada nos valores médios de energia e materiais consumidos; a Situação 2 foi baseada nos melhores valores praticados no setor sucroalcooleiro (menores consumos com o uso das melhores tecnologias existentes para o setor).

Macedo et al. (2004) apresentam um balanço positivo da contribuição do uso de etanol em substituição à gasolina, detalhado na tabela abaixo. A intenção aqui é revisar esses valores incluindo os efeitos da alteração do uso do solo na região onde poderia haver a expansão da cultura da cana-de-açúcar.

Na Situação 1 (média), a relação entre as emissões evitadas através do uso do etanol em lugar da gasolina e da cogeração a partir do bagaço de cana e as emissões provenientes da cadeia produtiva da cana e do etanol é de 7,4 e 5,3 para o álcool anidro e hidratado, respectivamente. Na Situação 2 (melhores valores praticados), a relação passa para 8,6 e 6,2, respectivamente.

Estudos mais detalhados são necessários para quantificar as perdas de carbono do solo com a eventual alteração da cobertura vegetal existente pela cultura da cana.

Balanço das emissões de CO 2 (equiv.) por tonelada de ca devido o uso de bioetanol em substituição à gasolina no Brasil

  (kg de CO2 eq/tonelada de cana)
EmissõesSituação 1 (média)Situação 2 (melhores valores)
Combustíveis fósseis 19,2 17,7
Metano e N2O da queima do bagaço 9,0 9,0
N2O do solo 6,3 6,3
Total de emissões 34,5 33,0
Emissões evitadas    
Uso do excesso de bagaço 12,5 23,3
Uso do etanol 242,5(A); 169,4(H) 259,0(A); 180,8(H)
Total de emissões evitadas 255,0(A); 181,9(H) 282,3(A); 204,2(H)
Emissão líquida evitada 220,5(A); 147,4(H) 249,3(A); 171,1(H)
A: álcool anidro. H: álcool hidratado. Fonte: Macedo et al. (2004)

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          -1.006.995-1.795z" fill=3D"#fff" fill-opacity=3D".6"></path></svg></div>\r\n
          =\r\n
                              </div>\r\n
                          </div>\r\n
                      </div>\r\n
          =\r\n
          \r\n
                      <div class=3D"container">\r\n
                                          =\r\n
              <div class=3D"trace trace-as-html">\r\n
                                  <table cl=\r\n
          ass=3D"trace-details">\r\n
                                      <thead class=3D"trace-=\r\n
          head"><tr><th>\r\n
                                          <h3 class=3D"trace-class">=\r\n
          \r\n
                                              <span class=3D"text-muted">(1/1)</sp=\r\n
          an>\r\n
                                              <span class=3D"exception_title"><=\r\n
          abbr title=3D"ErrorException">ErrorException</abbr></span>\r\n
                        =\r\n
                            </h3>\r\n
                                          <p class=3D"break=\r\n
          -long-words trace-message">file_put_contents(): Only 0 of 245 bytes written=\r\n
          , possibly out of free disk space</p>\r\n
                                      </th></=\r\n
          tr></thead>\r\n
                                      <tbody><tr><td><span class=3D"blo=\r\n
          ck trace-file-path">in <a title=3D"/var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/fr=\r\n
          amework/src/Illuminate/Filesystem/Filesystem.php line 122"><strong>Filesyst=\r\n
          em.php</strong> line 122</a></span></td></tr>\r\n
          <tr><td>at <span class=3D"t=\r\n
          race-class"><abbr title=3D"Illuminate\Foundation\Bootstrap\HandleExceptions=\r\n
          ">HandleExceptions</abbr></span><span class=3D"trace-type">-></span><span c=\r\n
          lass=3D"trace-method">handleError</span>(<span class=3D"trace-arguments">2,=\r\n
           'file_put_contents(): Only 0 of 245 bytes written, possibly out of free di=\r\n
          sk space', '/var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/=\r\n
          Filesystem/Filesystem.php', 122, <em>array</em>('path' =3D> '/var/www/html/=\r\n
          novacana/storage/framework/sessions/TlpmIershUezVlN9WE6rr98OucxahceDPsJaj87=\r\n
          3', 'contents' =3D> 'a:3:{s:6:&quot;_token&quot;;s:40:&quot;jvVhUQox7vqM1tV=\r\n
          wKmDzqJJGqf8OQ27kuXIBeuFy&quot;;s:9:&quot;_previous&quot;;a:1:{s:3:&quot;ur=\r\n
          l&quot;;s:87:&quot;https://www.novacana.com/sustentabilidade/impactos-reduc=\r\n
          ao-emissoes-gases-efeito-estufa&quot;;}s:6:&quot;_flash&quot;;a:2:{s:3:&quo=\r\n
          t;old&quot;;a:0:{}s:3:&quot;new&quot;;a:0:{}}}', 'lock' =3D> <em>true</em>)=\r\n
          </span>)</td></tr>\r\n
          <tr><td>at <span class=3D"trace-class"><abbr title=3D"=\r\n
          "></abbr></span><span class=3D"trace-type"></span><span class=3D"trace-meth=\r\n
          od">file_put_contents</span>(<span class=3D"trace-arguments">'/var/www/html=\r\n
          /novacana/storage/framework/sessions/TlpmIershUezVlN9WE6rr98OucxahceDPsJaj8=\r\n
          73', 'a:3:{s:6:&quot;_token&quot;;s:40:&quot;jvVhUQox7vqM1tVwKmDzqJJGqf8OQ2=\r\n
          7kuXIBeuFy&quot;;s:9:&quot;_previous&quot;;a:1:{s:3:&quot;url&quot;;s:87:&q=\r\n
          uot;https://www.novacana.com/sustentabilidade/impactos-reducao-emissoes-gas=\r\n
          es-efeito-estufa&quot;;}s:6:&quot;_flash&quot;;a:2:{s:3:&quot;old&quot;;a:0=\r\n
          :{}s:3:&quot;new&quot;;a:0:{}}}', 2</span>)<span class=3D"block trace-file-=\r\n
          path">in <a title=3D"/var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Il=\r\n
          luminate/Filesystem/Filesystem.php line 122"><strong>Filesystem.php</strong=\r\n
          > line 122</a></span></td></tr>\r\n
          <tr><td>at <span class=3D"trace-class"><a=\r\n
          bbr title=3D"Illuminate\Filesystem\Filesystem">Filesystem</abbr></span><spa=\r\n
          n class=3D"trace-type">-></span><span class=3D"trace-method">put</span>(<sp=\r\n
          an class=3D"trace-arguments">'/var/www/html/novacana/storage/framework/sess=\r\n
          ions/TlpmIershUezVlN9WE6rr98OucxahceDPsJaj873', 'a:3:{s:6:&quot;_token&quot=\r\n
          ;;s:40:&quot;jvVhUQox7vqM1tVwKmDzqJJGqf8OQ27kuXIBeuFy&quot;;s:9:&quot;_prev=\r\n
          ious&quot;;a:1:{s:3:&quot;url&quot;;s:87:&quot;https://www.novacana.com/sus=\r\n
          tentabilidade/impactos-reducao-emissoes-gases-efeito-estufa&quot;;}s:6:&quo=\r\n
          t;_flash&quot;;a:2:{s:3:&quot;old&quot;;a:0:{}s:3:&quot;new&quot;;a:0:{}}}'=\r\n
          , <em>true</em></span>)<span class=3D"block trace-file-path">in <a title=3D=\r\n
          "/var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Session/Fil=\r\n
          eSessionHandler.php line 83"><strong>FileSessionHandler.php</strong> line 8=\r\n
          3</a></span></td></tr>\r\n
          <tr><td>at <span class=3D"trace-class"><abbr title=\r\n
          =3D"Illuminate\Session\FileSessionHandler">FileSessionHandler</abbr></span>=\r\n
          <span class=3D"trace-type">-></span><span class=3D"trace-method">write</spa=\r\n
          n>(<span class=3D"trace-arguments">'TlpmIershUezVlN9WE6rr98OucxahceDPsJaj87=\r\n
          3', 'a:3:{s:6:&quot;_token&quot;;s:40:&quot;jvVhUQox7vqM1tVwKmDzqJJGqf8OQ27=\r\n
          kuXIBeuFy&quot;;s:9:&quot;_previous&quot;;a:1:{s:3:&quot;url&quot;;s:87:&qu=\r\n
          ot;https://www.novacana.com/sustentabilidade/impactos-reducao-emissoes-gase=\r\n
          s-efeito-estufa&quot;;}s:6:&quot;_flash&quot;;a:2:{s:3:&quot;old&quot;;a:0:=\r\n
          {}s:3:&quot;new&quot;;a:0:{}}}'</span>)<span class=3D"block trace-file-path=\r\n
          ">in <a title=3D"/var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illumi=\r\n
          nate/Session/Store.php line 128"><strong>Store.php</strong> line 128</a></s=\r\n
          pan></td></tr>\r\n
          <tr><td>at <span class=3D"trace-class"><abbr title=3D"Illu=\r\n
          minate\Session\Store">Store</abbr></span><span class=3D"trace-type">-></spa=\r\n
          n><span class=3D"trace-method">save</span>(<span class=3D"trace-arguments">=\r\n
          </span>)<span class=3D"block trace-file-path">in <a title=3D"/var/www/html/=\r\n
          novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Session/Middleware/StartSe=\r\n
          ssion.php line 87"><strong>StartSession.php</strong> line 87</a></span></td=\r\n
          ></tr>\r\n
          <tr><td>at <span class=3D"trace-class"><abbr title=3D"Illuminate\S=\r\n
          ession\Middleware\StartSession">StartSession</abbr></span><span class=3D"tr=\r\n
          ace-type">-></span><span class=3D"trace-method">terminate</span>(<span clas=\r\n
          s=3D"trace-arguments"><em>object</em>(<abbr title=3D"Illuminate\Http\Reques=\r\n
          t">Request</abbr>), <em>object</em>(<abbr title=3D"Illuminate\Http\Response=\r\n
          ">Response</abbr>)</span>)<span class=3D"block trace-file-path">in <a title=\r\n
          =3D"/var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Foundati=\r\n
          on/Http/Kernel.php line 218"><strong>Kernel.php</strong> line 218</a></span=\r\n
          ></td></tr>\r\n
          <tr><td>at <span class=3D"trace-class"><abbr title=3D"Illumin=\r\n
          ate\Foundation\Http\Kernel">Kernel</abbr></span><span class=3D"trace-type">=\r\n
          -></span><span class=3D"trace-method">terminateMiddleware</span>(<span clas=\r\n
          s=3D"trace-arguments"><em>object</em>(<abbr title=3D"Illuminate\Http\Reques=\r\n
          t">Request</abbr>), <em>object</em>(<abbr title=3D"Illuminate\Http\Response=\r\n
          ">Response</abbr>)</span>)<span class=3D"block trace-file-path">in <a title=\r\n
          =3D"/var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Foundati=\r\n
          on/Http/Kernel.php line 189"><strong>Kernel.php</strong> line 189</a></span=\r\n
          ></td></tr>\r\n
          <tr><td>at <span class=3D"trace-class"><abbr title=3D"Illumin=\r\n
          ate\Foundation\Http\Kernel">Kernel</abbr></span><span class=3D"trace-type">=\r\n
          -></span><span class=3D"trace-method">terminate</span>(<span class=3D"trace=\r\n
          -arguments"><em>object</em>(<abbr title=3D"Illuminate\Http\Request">Request=\r\n
          </abbr>), <em>object</em>(<abbr title=3D"Illuminate\Http\Response">Response=\r\n
          </abbr>)</span>)<span class=3D"block trace-file-path">in <a title=3D"/var/w=\r\n
          ww/html/novacana/public/index.php line 58"><strong>index.php</strong> line =\r\n
          58</a></span></td></tr>\r\n
          </tbody>\r\n
          </table>\r\n
          </div>\r\n
          \r\n
                      </d=\r\n
          iv>\r\n
              </body>\r\n
          </html>Array\r\n
          (\r\n
          )\r\n
          https://www.novacana.com/sustent=\r\n
          abilidade/impactos-reducao-emissoes-gases-efeito-estufa\r\n
          """
        $mode: 1
      }
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/swiftmailer/swiftmailer/lib/classes/Swift/Mime/SimpleMimeEntity.php:477 {$string = $this->headers->toString();$string .= $this->bodyToString();}
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/swiftmailer/swiftmailer/lib/classes/Swift/Mime/SimpleMessage.php:576 {} else {    $string = parent::toString();}
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/swiftmailer/swiftmailer/lib/classes/Swift/Message.php:142 {if (empty($this->headerSigners) && empty($this->bodySigners)) {    return parent::toString();}
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Mail/Transport/SesTransport.php:40 {'RawMessage' => [    'Data' => $message->toString(),],
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/swiftmailer/swiftmailer/lib/classes/Swift/Mailer.php:71 {try {    $sent = $this->transport->send($message, $failedRecipients);} catch (Swift_RfcComplianceException $e) {
      arguments: {
        $message: Swift_Message {#1 …}
        &$failedRecipients: []
      }
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Mail/Mailer.php:451 {try {    return $this->swift->send($message, $this->failedRecipients);} finally {
      arguments: {
        $message: Swift_Message {#1 …}
        &$failedRecipients: []
      }
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Mail/Mailer.php:235 {if ($this->shouldSendMessage($swiftMessage)) {    $this->sendSwiftMessage($swiftMessage);arguments: {
        $message: Swift_Message {#1 …}
      }
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Mail/Mailable.php:125 {             ->runCallbacks($message);    });}
      arguments: {
        $view: "errors.emails-exception"
        $data: array:8 [ …8]
        $callback: Closure { …}
      }
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Mail/Mailer.php:250 {    return $mailable instanceof ShouldQueue            ? $mailable->queue($this->queue) : $mailable->send($this);}
      arguments: {
        $mailer: Mailer { …}
      }
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Mail/Mailer.php:205 {if ($view instanceof MailableContract) {    return $this->sendMailable($view);}
      arguments: {
        $mailable: ExceptionOccured {#2 …}
      }
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Mail/PendingMail.php:99 {
      › 
      ›     return $this->mailer->send($this->fill($mailable));}
      arguments: {
        $view: ExceptionOccured {#2 …}
      }
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/app/Exceptions/Handler.php:61 {
      › 
      ›     Mail::to('juliano@biodieselbr.com')->cc('ricardo@novacana.com')->send(new ExceptionOccured($html));} catch (Exception $ex) {
      arguments: {
        $mailable: ExceptionOccured {#2 …}
      }
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/app/Exceptions/Handler.php:44 {if ($this->shouldReport($exception)) {  $this->sendEmail($exception, $request); // sends an email}
      arguments: {
        $exception: ErrorException {#3 …}
        $request: Request { …}
      }
    }
    /var/www/html/novacana/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Foundation/Bootstrap/HandleExceptions.php:81 {try {    $this->getExceptionHandler()->report($e);} catch (Exception $e) {
      arguments: {
        $exception: ErrorException {#3 …}
      }
    }
    Illuminate\Foundation\Bootstrap\HandleExceptions->handleException() {}
  }
}